Innovación tecnológica inducida: un análisis bibliométrico de la investigación en energía solar, 1960-2018

  • Andrés Felipe Rúa-Ortiz Instituto Tecnológico Metropolitano
  • Humberto Merritt Instituto Politécnico Nacional-Centro de Investigaciones Económicas, Administrativas y Sociales
  • Jhoany Alejandro Valencia Arias Instituto Tecnológico Metropolitano
Palabras clave: energía solar, innovación tecnológica, tecnologías alternativas, petróleo, bibliometría

Resumen

En años recientes ha crecido el número de desastres naturales causados por el calentamiento global. A raíz de estos desastres se ha criticado el uso de combustibles fósiles para satisfacer la demanda mundial de energía, planteándose la alternativa de sustituir petróleo por energías más limpias como la solar, la eólica y la hidráulica. Sin embargo, la adopción e implementación de este tipo de energías alternativas enfrenta ventajas y desventajas, tanto de carácter económico como estructural. Entre las primeras están las crecientes innovaciones tecnológicas que aumentan su atractivo en términos de los costos de oportunidad, y en las segundas están la baja competitividad económica que aún ofrecen las tecnologías alternativas (o limpias) en comparación con el petróleo. Este artículo aborda el origen de la sustitución desde un marco histórico, al postular que el auge tecnológico de las energías alternativas, en particular la energía solar, se vio inducido por el embargo petrolero que sufrieron los Estados Unidos en 1973 y que sirvió de aliciente para disparar la investigación en estas tecnologías. Siguiendo una metodología de búsqueda bibliométrica, se separa el análisis en seis etapas para demostrar que la subida del precio del petróleo detonó el auge de energías alternativas, pero conforme fue creciendo el número de artículos publicados, se logró consolidar el área de investigación, separándose del efecto precio.

Biografía del autor

Andrés Felipe Rúa-Ortiz, Instituto Tecnológico Metropolitano

Ingeniero Electronico y de Telecomunicaciones, Candidato a Magister en Gestión de la innovación Tecnologica Cooperación y Desarrollo Regional del ITM-Medellín. Investigador en el Departamento de Ciencias Administrativas, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Administrativas.

Humberto Merritt, Instituto Politécnico Nacional-Centro de Investigaciones Económicas, Administrativas y Sociales

Doctor en Política Científica y Tecnológica por el Science and Technology Policy Research (SPRU) de la Universidad de Sussex en Brighton, Gran Bretaña. Maestro en Economía por el Centro de Estudios Económicos de El Colegio de México.

Jhoany Alejandro Valencia Arias, Instituto Tecnológico Metropolitano

Alejandro Valencia-Arias currently works at the Departamento de Ciencias Administrativas, Instituto Tecnológico Metropolitano. Jhoany Alejandro does research in Entrepreneurship. Business Administration and Marketing.

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Publicado
2020-05-15